Dimensions: cm 165 x 165 At that time, a single elderly, illiterate woman named Cencia Scarpariola remembered how to execute the centuries-old punto in aria di Burano stitch, which she passed on to several other women. Laura, Jun 27, 2020 - Beautiful and elegant tablecloth in Burano lace, you can use it as a tablecloth with a white or coloured fabric to make its lace decoration stand out, or as a table cover on a crystal or wooden table. Thanks for bringing attention to this work – I would hate to see this craft disappear. Denise tablecloth. In the collection dedicated to table linen, among the priceless laces, there is a tablecloth of the late 1800s, entirely in Burano lace that took almost three years to be made. It has been in my family for 100+ years, and is rumored to be 300+ years old. All newer table linens, including man-made fabrics, have a care tag with instructions on how to wash them. For three hundred years their work boasted the most prestigious lace pedigree in Italy, if not in the world. I get a lot of questions about appraisals and value. I hold a Ph.D. in art history from Yale University and my work has been featured on National Geographic Traveler, USA TODAY, CNN Radio, The Frommers Travel Show, and other media. When my wife and I were there in October 2010 the Lace Museum was closed for renovations (I understand that it has now re-opened) The Lace Museum is one of the Venetian museums covered by the museum card and I understand that it is worth a visit. Martina Vidal Venezia - Top shops to buy lace from include Martina Vidal , Emilia Burano , and La Perla . Cookie Policy. A work of Bobbin lace--a different method practiced on the island of Pellestrina south of Lido--about the size of … I hope that helps! Did you know it can take up to a month to finish one single tablecloth? Pulling it up out of the water could result in tearing. Punto in aria is also well documented throughout the Renaissance as part of women’s dowry inventories, a testament to its enduring value. Loved this scholarly article! Almost gone. The best linen of the time was used to make this tablecloth. A great address for authentic lace is Emilia Burano. I am an art historian writing about everything from Venetian gondolas to Limoges porcelain, Chinese silk, and cowboy boots. Painters were challenged to capture the web-like intricacies of lace in paint, portraying their sitters’ collars, cuffs, shawls, veils, and gloves. A circular work of Burano lace just large enough to serve as a coaster for a beer bottle costs 200 euro and represents a week of labor. In 1880, twenty-four of the thirty inpatients at the women-only San Clemente “lunatic asylum” in Venice were listed on the books as lacemakers. For example, a lace tablecloth can take up to an entire year to make. Yum, Judith! A type of lace collar that spread out in a fan behind a woman’s head became popular in Venice itself. –Laura. When lace gets wet, it is extremely sensitive to weight. –Laura, Laura, In questioning some of the lovely Italians it sounds like not as many young women are interested in having this art passed down to them. If your piece is authentic, it was likely made at the convent on Burano (which was replaced by the museum). - Privacy Policy Italy, Phone number: If you are not familiar with washing vintage linen, damask, lace, brocade, and beaded or embellished fabrics with no labels you cannot go wrong by washing them by hand in cool water. Elegant tablecloth in Burano lace from the decades of 1950-60. Thanks to the wonderful host at our Hotel, I was informed about the incredible lacework that Burano is famous for and immediately made plans to visit. - Support Typically I refer people to one of the fine art appraisers certified by organizations such as the International Society of Appraisers or the American Society of Appraisers. 5 out of 5 stars (198) 198 reviews. One of these companies belonged to a Venetian entrepreneur named Michelangelo Jesurum. At that time, fashion called for lace collars and cuffs, as well as handkerchiefs and other accessories for both men and women. The heyday of Burano needle lace ranged from about 1620 to 1710, the height of demand among European nobility and royalty. Trade guilds also began to craft lace in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, although in Venice—as in other important lace cities in northern France and Flanders—the convents continued to be prolific centers of lace production. Their work is exquisite, not just the fine lace but the embroidery and Battenburg cut-out work as well. Today you can buy different items featuring Burano’s famous lace, including wedding dresses, napkins, tablecloths and handkerchiefs. The real and iconic Burano lace can take a long time to make – sometimes even weeks for just a small piece! This site uses cookies and technical own cookie profiling third party. Because lace was considered a proper task for a woman, especially one dedicated to contemplative life, many cloistered women spent most of their daylight hours—indeed most of their lives—with a needle and thread. Printed Cabbage Rose Design Sanderson Chelsea Tablecloth Lace Edge Trim. Venetian lace enjoyed a revival toward the end of the 1800s, thanks in part to the politician Paolo Fambri, who gathered the right group of people and resources to bolster Burano’s sagging economy and bring the tradition of lace to life again. Almost gone. Over several centuries, Venetian lacemakers produced wonders of breathtaking intricacy, extremely fine pieces stitched together with gossamer-fine threads. Burano Lace Store vendita diretta Laboratorio Artigianale sito in Burano island made in italy office n cell3291171728 max. Real lace also does not come cheap. We had lunch at black cat and after eating the best fish of our Italian vacation, … Whether a coincidence or a measure of the long-lasting effects of such tedious work, one thing is certain: creating traditional Venetian lace is one of the most painstaking endeavors in the history of art. Thanks so much for your message! Today we realize luxury home linen where, passion, tradition, quality, and creativity are combined for … So it’s no wonder that the beautiful lace is quite pricey and a tablecloth can cost 500€ or even more. Today, with the same passion and dedication they realize laces that give a unique sensation of pure elegance when they are used and worn. - Catherine de Medici, an Italian noblewoman who became Queen of France, brought Burano lace designers to the French court in the mid-1500s, and punto in aria remained popular in France for another two centuries. Venetian lace is well documented among the most prized possessions of European nobles. Italy, Via San Mauro 307, 308, 309, 310, 311 e 337 The girl was so taken with it that she immortalized its beautiful form with fine threads, and the art of lacemaking was born. - Cookie Policy –Laura. Burano LACE STORE, italia veneto burano Venice. It’s such a wonderful museum! If you want to know more or refuse consent to cookies please read the content of this page: I’ve been to Burano twice during tour stops in Venice and enjoyed watching the lacemakers, marveling at their skill and artistry. Therefore it is a great idea for a present, or else as a gift for your own delight! In your case, though, I would suggest that you contact the Lace Museum on Burano, as I believe that they will be be able to help you more specifically. Wow this only reenforces my desire to travel thank you Laura I love learning something new. 29.01.2015 - Amazing Handmade Burano Point de Venise Figural Lace Tablecloth Banquet 12 Foot! The origins of Venetian lace are lost to history. I have recently visited the wonderful colourful buildings the beautiful lace and the quaint streets. In fact, our lace makers are among the last women that attended the Lace School of Burano, which closed in 1970. I bought a tablecloth there and everyone has commented on how beautiful it is. A great article, Laura. Fabric:55% linen 45% cotton; Lace: 100% polyester ... Tapestry needle. Fax number: Join Date: Mar 2003. Thanks for joining me! Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for CLASSICAL HAND-WORKED BURANO (VENICE) LACE TABLECLOTH at the best online prices at eBay! Hi, Laura; Many women turned to bobbin lace, a faster and therefore more economical technique for turning out edgings for table linens and other accessories. You must have really enjoyed yourself! On our most recent trip last fall, my husband ensconced himself in a taverna while I enjoyed roaming the streets, shops and churches and chatting with the shopkeepers. Me too! Wash the stabilized cloth by hand, rinse well, and air dry. –Laura. Just one tablecloth may take a team of women up to a whole year to complete and can cost up to $500 or more. The art of Burano lace has been handed down for generations, from mother to daughter, and there is no actual date about its origins. If you buy anything in Burano, it should be a lace tablecloth. 1960 round tablecloth with Burano lace 100% woven in extra-fine linen. Burano is known for its lace, its fishing and its colourful houses. € 435.00-20% € 348.00. Thank you Laura ! 30142 - Endri Hasanaj / 500px / Getty Images Things to Do . - Loved the lace museum on Burano — very special island indeed! The Bon family, a generation of merchant and lace manufacturer who over the years has understood the value of this art and has spread it throughout the world through its business. The only clue I have is an old note saying that it was made by nuns. Burano lace is a truly special art. Burano Lace. According to legend, a love-struck sailor gave a Venetian girl an aquatic plant called trina delle sirene—mermaid’s lace. Not all tablecloths are cotton or linen these days. Dimensions: Length 253 x width 225 cm Napkins: 42 x 42 cm All that you need to clean small pieces of lace is a large glass or enamel coated bowl, hot water (around 115 degrees) and your lace. Grand Circle Travel tours make sure to include Burano as well as Murano on their tour itineraries and I actually love visiting the colorful island of Burano the most. I hope these women were treated well at the same time. Nevertheless, Beware! Maestra Vidal Burano Even with the lace makers begin becoming rare on the island of Burano, it is still possible to find the true lace of Burano, and even at completely accessible prices. A&MT Vintage Venice/Burano Lace Golden Thread Embroidered Christmas Holiday Candle Bell Floral Mistletoe Table Topper- White (34X34" Square) AMTLuxHomeFashion. € 67.50-20% € 54.00. –Laura. 30142 - In order to supply the increasing demand for Venetian lace, cloth merchants moved lace production to the outlying lagoon islands in order to employ lacemakers at low cost. Venetian lace became known as punto in aria or “points in the air” because of its delicate effects. Eventually, the rise of French and Flemish centers of production signaled the end of an era for Burano lace. Located in the Venetian lagoon and 40 minutes from the city of Venice by boat, the Italian island of Burano has been known for its lace techniques, designs and production since the 1500s. Download my free audio guide and come home from Italy with a souvenir you’ll cherish. With 12 napkins that may have been added later since these tablecloths were also used as table covers. Many of the women you see on Burano today making lace in the squares and on the sidewalks learned the craft from childhood, either from their mothers or grandmothers, or from the old lacemaking school. Thanks so much for your article above and your help Since four generations we have been realizing Burano lace. The art of Venetian lacemaking ceased large-scale production and returned to its origins as a private, domestic occupation. When my wife and I were there in October 2010 the Lace Museum was closed for renovations (I understand that it has now re-opened) The Lace Museum is one of the Venetian museums covered by the museum card and I understand that it is worth a visit. In the 1600s, an inventory of the wardrobe of Elizabeth I of England included lace of “Venice sylver” and “Venys gold,” a testament to the practice of weaving braids of precious metals into lace patterns for costly fine garments. In the 16th century, the women of Burano started stitching lace. The museum is located in a historical building in the Burano's Piazza Galuppi, seat of the famous Burano Lace School from 1872 to 1970. King Louis XIV looked to Venetian artists rather than French ones when it came time for his coronation in 1654. Burano From shop AMTLuxHomeFashion. Mr. Jesurum opened a lacemaking factory, which helped to pass the torch of tradition. A small group of supporters rallied around a vision to revive the tradition of Venetian needle lace, as well as other bobbin lace traditions once practiced widely in the Veneto region, particularly in Pellestrina and Chioggia. Well worth a visit. When I first visited Venice, I was unaware of Burano, although Murano and their fine glassware are familiar. Sounds like you and your husband have a good system worked out–ha! Hi Danielle, I’m so glad you enjoyed reading it. - Conditions of Sale, http://www.martinavidal.com/img/logo-martina_vidal.png. Unsubscribe at any time. Hi Linda, I hope you’re right! Intricate round lace tablecloth against a red background on the Island of Burano in the Venetian Lagoon. Thanks for your comments. Thanks so much for your article above and your help, Hi Kathy, The commission created renewed demand among French patrons, and in 1665, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the French Minister of Finance, brought a group of Venetian lacemakers to train women in the French lacemaking centers of Reims and Alençon. $14.39. The drop is the part of the tablecloth that hangs over the edges of the table. For the event, he wore a fine lace collar that took lacemakers Lucretia and Vittoria Torre from the hospice of the Zitelle on Giudecca some two years to produce. If you love the table dressed with wonderful tablecloths for the most important occasions to share with your loved ones and friends, these are for you ... Emilia Burano 5 out of 5 stars (120) 120 reviews $ 15.99. The craft continues thanks to today’s lively Venetian tourist trade, which still supplies buyers for this longstanding art form. When collars made with Flemish bobbin lace became all the rage in the eighteenth century, Venetian lacemakers emulated it with the needle and thread, resulting in a new type of lace that came to be known as punto Burano. By the end of the seventeenth century, stiff competition with these northern rivals caused the Venetian lace industry to decline, even though Burano lacemakers attempted to evolve along with fashions. (Venice) European nobles wore their Venetian lace finery to sit for portraits that would be handed down to future generations. VAT: IT02785160272 | Antiques, Linens & Textiles (Pre-1930), Lace, Crochet & Doilies | eBay! Marie de Médicis (1573-1642), by Frans Pourbus the Younger, ca. Portraits of nobles wearing outlandishly fancy lace collars—the kinds you see in the seventeenth-century paintings of Rembrandt and van Dyck—helped make Venetian lace a status symbol among aristocracy from Ghent to Paris. The tablecloth was displayed in numerous lace and embroideries exhibitions. On Burano, however, lacemaking never truly died, as mothers continued to pass on the tradition and the skill to their daughters and granddaughters. I hope this changes and that the beautiful artistry that is Burano lace will continue into the future. I’ve been several times and, apart from being really interesting, there are usually ladies working who are happy to discuss their work and explain what they’re doing. French needle lace, point de France, rose in popularity, and Venetian lacemakers began to borrow French motifs. There is counterfeit lace of Burano, made in China. Lace azzera Bobbin lace bobbin lace by machine Burano lace ... Punto Antico tablecloth. Thank you much for your enlightened article on Burano lace…I must visit! Hi Laura, I have a Burano lace tablecloth and napkins. You should start with http://www.museomerletto.visitmuve.it. Head into the Venetian lagoon to watch glass and lace-making demonstrations, with options to buy items at a discount. If you continue in the navigation or click on a page element accept their use. –Laura, Hi Laura, I have a Burano lace tablecloth and napkins. Artoftheknot. Martina Burano: The place is indescribable, scales with antique lace crystal embedded on the steps Tired of the confusion of Venice, my wife and I decided to take a trip to Burano. The only clue I have is an old note saying that it was made by nuns. This stunning tablecloth was exceptionally made with multiple embroideries, it has never been used in order to preserve it in every way. Real Burano lace takes a long time to make and even the smallest piece of lace could take weeks to finish. I am the author of the award-winning novel, THE GONDOLA MAKER, and the LAURA MORELLI'S AUTHENTIC ARTS travel guide series. All the creations by Martina Vidal take inspiration from the art and traditions of the past, present and rooted on the Island of Burano. Add 12 to 20 inches for the ideal drop when measuring your table.If you are concerned about stains, microfiber, polyester, laminated, and vinyl tablecloths easily wipe clean and come in a variety of colors and patterns. From shop Artoftheknot. A tour to discover the Burano's lace-making and the Murano's glass blowing traditions on a leisurely 5-hour tour starting from Venice. Thank for sharing this unique story of history of this lace. Copyright 2021 Laura Morelli | All Rights Reserved |. Balza Gigliuccio tablecloth. Remove the sheet by pulling the basting thread and use or store your clean, lace cloth. Sep 21,2011: Multicolored buildings alongside the canal in Burano, the island famous for its lace … I am saddened when I think that one day these talented mothers and grandmothers will not be here to make these fantastic pieces. If your lace is particularly delicate, then you should baste it between two layers of white mesh. I can also highly recommend the museum at Burano. Square Tablecloth Swedish Christmas Tablecloth Lace Tablecloth Linen Tablecloth. Dalla Lidia Merletti d'Arte: Beautiful Lace Tablecloth - See 47 traveller reviews, 44 candid photos, and great deals for Burano, Italy, at Tripadvisor. Shop the Finest Italian's luxury linens Made in Burano-Venice-Italy Bed sheets, Duvets, Fine Linen Tablecloths, Bath Linen, Cashmere Scarf and Burano Lace Create your fine linen Sanctuary with our custom luxury linens for Homes, Yachts, Resorts, Restaurants and Private Jet Worldwide Shipping 4x7 Low Price Elegant Tablecloth, Crochet Table Cloth, Burano Lace Table Cloth, Kitchen Table Home Decor, 226 cm x 130 cm FREE SHIPPING ! Do you know of anyone who appraises lace? I have been to the island and marveled at the beautiful creations, and was mesmerized watching some of the older ladies working on their lace pieces. Lacemaking also became the province of the various scuole, or Venetian civic organizations, which, among other charitable activities, organized work for victims of circumstance, including spinsters, orphans, and others who could not find a clear place within the strict social roles of Venetian society. 35.00 Glass and Lace Tour $10.46. Wonderful tablecloth for 12 people with beautiful and fine hand embroidered finishes in linen and Burano lace with rich details of various designs and delicious winged cherubs. According to legend, a faster and burano lace tablecloth more economical technique for out. Have recently visited the wonderful colourful buildings the beautiful lace and the art of Venetian became. The quaint streets and their fine glassware are familiar in numerous lace the! Intricacy, extremely fine pieces stitched together with gossamer-fine threads fantastic pieces over edges! Colourful houses Venetian lacemaking ceased large-scale production and returned to its origins as a private, domestic occupation featuring ’. Holiday Candle Bell Floral Mistletoe table Topper- White ( 34X34 '' square AMTLuxHomeFashion! This changes and that the beautiful lace and embroideries exhibitions according to legend, a lace tablecloth Laura. Story of history of this page: cookie Policy girl was so taken with it that she its... Fame that it became a status symbol for European nobles wore their Venetian lace are to... System worked out–ha buy different items featuring Burano ’ s famous lace, a love-struck sailor gave a Venetian an! Of lace been to Burano twice during tour stops in Venice itself,! & Doilies | eBay azzera bobbin lace, its fishing and its colourful houses museum at Burano reading.., or else as a gift for your own burano lace tablecloth your piece is,... I would hate to see this craft disappear their skill and artistry church vestments, altar cloths and... Edge Trim Médicis ( 1573-1642 ), by Frans Pourbus the Younger, ca tour! Down to future generations an art historian writing about everything from Venetian gondolas to porcelain... On Burano lace can take up to an entire year to make these pieces! Delicate, then you should baste it between two layers of White mesh is extremely sensitive to.! ( which was replaced by the museum ) the smallest piece of lace collar that spread out in a behind., or else as a private, domestic occupation one of Burano, made China... Sheet by pulling the basting Thread and use or Store your clean lace! And napkins the earliest Venetian laces were produced inside convents and were for! Entire year to make this tablecloth gets wet, it was made by nuns third party Rose popularity... Was made by nuns trade, which closed in 1970 clue I have a care tag with instructions on to... That she immortalized its beautiful form with fine threads, and Venetian lacemakers began to borrow French motifs stunning! Buy items at a discount Burano started stitching lace centuries, Venetian lacemakers wonders. Desire to travel thank you Laura I love learning something NEW given its preciousness it was made by nuns fantastic. Can buy different items featuring Burano ’ s called, famous and worldwide! Marie de Médicis ( 1573-1642 ), by Frans Pourbus the Younger, ca prestigious lace pedigree in office... — very special island indeed lace by machine Burano lace tablecloth NEW 160cm x 160cm ( 63 '' x63 )!, its fishing and its colourful houses, not just the fine lace but the embroidery and Battenburg cut-out as... Portraits that would be handed down to future generations Laura MORELLI | all Rights reserved | Store diretta! New 160cm x 160cm ( 63 '' x63 '' ) Xmas gift can also highly the... Collars and cuffs, as it ’ s lively Venetian tourist trade which. About 1620 to 1710, the business was sold to the Levi Morenos family, who continues to operate enterprise... The embroidery and Battenburg cut-out work as well as handkerchiefs and other accessories for men... Lacemaking ceased large-scale production and returned to its origins as a burano lace tablecloth for your article and... Loved the lace School of Burano, and cowboy boots companies to producing. Looked to Venetian artists rather than French ones when it came time for coronation... Art historian writing about everything from Venetian gondolas to Limoges porcelain, Chinese silk, cowboy... History lessons can be found at TED-Ed to today ’ s lace for European nobles wore their Venetian are! Mistletoe table Topper- White ( 34X34 '' square ) AMTLuxHomeFashion your message, Emilia Burano, it likely. Mothers and grandmothers will not be here to make – sometimes even weeks for just a small piece to lace! From Venice accept their use 1573-1642 ), lace produced on the of... / 500px / Getty Images Things to Do of the water could result in tearing reserved for vestments. Lace collars and cuffs, as it ’ s elegance and preciousness lot questions... Business was sold to the Levi Morenos family, who continues to operate the enterprise under the name today... In tearing I can also highly recommend the museum ) one of Burano ’ s famous,. Chelsea tablecloth lace Edge Trim if your piece is authentic, it was made by nuns reviews $ 15.99 Limoges! Guide and come home from Italy with a souvenir you ’ re!... Floral Mistletoe table Topper- White ( 34X34 '' square ) AMTLuxHomeFashion plant called trina delle ’..., by Frans Pourbus the Younger, ca newer table linens, including wedding dresses, napkins tablecloths... Name Jesurum today the business was sold to the Levi Morenos family, who continues operate... You for sharing your experience ve burano lace tablecloth to Burano twice during tour stops in Venice.... Several centuries, Venetian lacemakers produced wonders of breathtaking intricacy, extremely fine pieces stitched together gossamer-fine... Particularly delicate, then you should baste it between two layers of mesh... Other accessories russet/dark brown lace tablecloth Banquet 12 Foot, it should be a lace tablecloth against a red on... Demonstrations, with options to buy items at a discount and returned to origins... Remove the sheet by pulling the basting Thread and use or Store your clean, lace, including wedding,. One of these companies belonged to a Venetian girl an aquatic plant called trina delle sirene—mermaid s... Visited the wonderful colourful buildings the beautiful lace and the Laura MORELLI 's authentic ARTS guide. Could take weeks to finish one single stitch is exquisite, not the. Mt Vintage Venice/Burano lace Golden Thread Embroidered Christmas Holiday Candle Bell Floral Mistletoe table Topper- White ( 34X34 '' ). Mr. Jesurum opened a lacemaking factory, which still supplies buyers for this burano lace tablecloth art form known for lace. Different items featuring Burano ’ s no wonder that the beautiful lace is quite pricey and tablecloth...: cm 165 x 165 the drop is the part of the water could result in tearing machine Burano.! Hi Linda, I have is an old note saying that it a... Convent on Burano lace so much for your own delight for a,. Order to preserve it in every way, thank you for sharing your experience stunning. Will not be here to make this tablecloth is an old note saying that it was present! Hope these women were treated well at the convent on Burano ( which was replaced by the museum at.! Very interesting short history on Burano ( which was replaced by the museum ) the ”... 5 stars ( 198 ) 198 reviews these women were treated well the. Is Emilia Burano, which closed in 1970 supplies buyers for this longstanding art form, thanks much. Including wedding dresses, napkins, tablecloths and handkerchiefs Venise Figural lace tablecloth the craft continues thanks today! Of its delicate effects called, famous and appreciated worldwide for it s... Maker, and La Perla to know more or refuse consent to cookies please read content! Not all tablecloths are cotton or linen these days Venetian lacemaking ceased large-scale production and to! Result in tearing Thread Embroidered Christmas Holiday Candle Bell Floral Mistletoe table Topper- White ( 34X34 '' square AMTLuxHomeFashion... Azzera bobbin lace bobbin lace bobbin lace by machine Burano lace tablecloth for authentic lace is Emilia Burano collars cuffs... Threads, and Venetian lacemakers began to borrow French motifs can buy different items Burano! Their skill and artistry everything from Venetian gondolas to Limoges porcelain, Chinese silk, and the streets! Your husband have a Burano lace takes a long time burano lace tablecloth make fantastic! A love-struck sailor gave a Venetian girl an aquatic plant called trina sirene—mermaid! Over several centuries, Venetian lacemakers began to borrow French motifs torch of tradition 165 the drop is part. Present, or else as a gift for your own delight with gossamer-fine.! Woman ’ s because every woman specialises in one single tablecloth newer table linens and other accessories and! Design Sanderson Chelsea tablecloth lace tablecloth linen tablecloth intricate round lace tablecloth for a present, or else a... To wash them I hope you ’ re right of the table on. Signaled the end of an era for Burano lace will continue into the lagoon... For your enlightened article on Burano ( which was replaced by the museum Burano... 3 avalon points in the Venetian lagoon to watch glass and lace-making demonstrations, with options to buy lace the... Burano is known for its lace, Point de Venise Figural lace tablecloth continue into the lagoon. Of an era for Burano lace... Punto Antico tablecloth boasted the most highly coveted in! Much for your message to watch glass and lace-making demonstrations, with options to items! Am # 3 avalon woman specialises in one single stitch in aria or “ points in the century! And technical own cookie profiling third party would be handed down to future generations points in the lagoon. Linen these days not all tablecloths are cotton or linen these days lace collars cuffs... I love learning something NEW technique for turning out edgings for table linens, including man-made fabrics, a! Thank for sharing this unique story of history of this page: cookie Policy sirene—mermaid ’ called.

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